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Title: "Trilateral Border Issue Symposium"
Date: March 2013

"The Nature of Aggregate and Regional Canada – U.S. Trade (1990 – 2011)"
Author(s): Steven Globerman, Ph.D. and Paul Storer, Ph.D., College of Business and Economics
Date: February 2013
Summary: The impact of post-9/11 border security developments on Canada-U.S. trade has been the focus of much attention in recent years. The available evidence suggests that both U.S. exports and imports with Canada grew more slowly after 9/11 than would otherwise have been the case.

Title: "Crossing Bridges: Observations and Strategies by Cross-Border Business Communities in an Evolving Regulatory Environment"
Author(s): Anneliese Vance, Ph.D.
Date: December 2012
Summary: This paper explores the effects of changing border regulations on the business environments of two key cross-border trading regions.

Title: "2012 Evaluation of Mobility at the Pacific Highway Truck Crossing, Southbound"
Author(s): David L. Davidson
Date: September 2012
Summary: A multi-year effort has been underway to improve the mobility of trucks traveling southbound through the Pacific Highway border crossing in Blaine, Washington. USCBP requested that a final round of field measurements be gathered to document the performance improvements achieved by the reconfiguration of the plaza and the elimination of a dedicated FAST booth. This document provides the results of a field project undertaken in August 2012, as requested by USCBP.

Title: "Measuring the Costs of the Canada-U.S. Border"
Author(s): Alexander Moens and Nachum Gabler
Date: August 2012
Summary: Since 9/11, the Canada-US border has experienced a variety of new security regulations which have made it more costly to trade and travel between the two countries. Though an assortment of policies, programs, and pieces of legislation have been introduced to alleviate border restrictions, progress has been modest.

Title: "Northern Border Strategy"
Author(s): U.S. Department of Homeland Security
Date: June 2012
Summary: A Department-wide look at the northern border, considering all of DHS’s authorities, responsibilities, and capabilities in developing a cross-cutting all-missions approach.

Title: "Advancing US-Canada Border Transportation Planning and Programming"
Author(s): Hugh Conroy, Border Policy Research Institute, Western Washington University
Date: October, 2011
Summary: This study examines each country’s border-oriented transportation programs and identifies reasons why a more forward-looking bilateral planning program is elusive. The analysis identifies opportunities found in recent state-provincial executive diplomacy and the Beyond the Border Declaration and suggests possible actions that would support a binationally coordinated approach to joint U.S.-Canada border planning.

Title: "The New Security Perimeter with the United States"
Author(s): Brian Flemming
Date: September, 2011
Summary:  This paper attempts to predict how a new security perimeter agreement will be negotiated and what subjects will be covered by any new agreement or series of agreements.

Title: "Effort to Test, Evaluate and Deploy Technologies to Automate the Measurement of Real-Time Border Wait Times at United States – Canada Land Border Crossings"
Author(s): U.S. DOT (FHWA) and partners
Date: September, 2011
Summary:  In an effort to move toward timely and accurate information, this project is designed to develop an automated process for collecting border wait times that will be facilitated by the use of existing or emerging technology.

Title: "Regional Freight Capacity Management: Free and Secure Trade (FAST) Program Optimization at the Pacific Highway, Southbound Crossing"
Author(s): Mark Springer, Western Washington University
Date: September, 2011
Summary:  The report summarizes modeling results of alternative FAST program access-lane configurations and queue-jumping policies to identify optimal system management strategies for both FAST and general truck traffic under varying traffic volume and varying percentages of fully compliant FAST (C-T PAT) movements in the traffic stream. Intermediate operational changes based on earlier pilot testing are already providing major congestion-reduction benefits for all commercial traffic at this crossing. This report is currently informing next-step investment strategies by the province of BC and the state of WA as they evaluate infrastructure modifications in consultation with both federal border inspection agencies.

Title: "Comparing a Year of Inbound Travel: the United States and Canada - 2009"
Author(s): Medina, Dylan, et al, Border Policy Research Institute, Western Washington University
Date: August, 2011
Summary:  This study compares the cross-border flow of people into the U.S. and Canada, using 2009 data. The research team collected and analyzed quantitative data from U.S. and Canadian immigration agencies and presented the information in several informative graphs and maps. Their conclusions and policy recommendations reflect different border and immigration policies, social values and highlight problems of data comparability between the two nations.

Title: "2011 Pacific Highway Southbound FAST Lane Study - Final Report"
Author(s): Border Policy Research Institute, Western Washington University
Date: June, 2011
Summary:  In the spring of 2011, a pilot test was conducted at the U.S. commercial port of entry (POE) at Blaine, Washington. The test was designed to determine whether a reconfiguration of operations at the POE would lead to improved southbound freight mobility. This report documents the methods and results of the pilot test.

Title: "Sondage sur les préoccupations et les irritants vécus par les transporteurs Québécois aux posts frontaliers"
Author(s): Quebec Ministry of Transportation
Date: March, 2011
Summary:  This document presents the findings of a study undertaken to determine the main concerns of transportation companies in Quebec in regards to the Canada-U.S. border.

Title: "Cross-Border Passenger Bus Study"
Author(s): RTR Technologies, LLC
Date: March, 2011
Summary:  This study reports on the findings of a survey of border transportation groups in the commercial bus industry and customs officials at several key Canada-U.S. crossings. A number of similar issues and possible solutions were raised by both the bus industry and customs agencies.

Title: "Strengthening Our Ties: Four Steps Toward a More Successful Canada-U.S. Partnership"
Author(s): The Canadian Chamber of Commerce
Date: December 2010
Summary: The report examines how Canada’s relationship with the United States has become strained in recent years and outlines four areas - trade, regulatory policies, the border, and energy security and the environment - where notable progress has the potential to usher in the next generation of economic growth and prosperity for both countries.

Title: "Canada - United States Border Survey"
Author(s): Industry Canada & Statistics Canada
Date: March 2010
Summary: In order to improve our understanding of the impact of border-related issues on Canada’s competitiveness, Industry Canada initiated the Canada-U.S. Border Survey (CUBS). This survey was funded by the Research Fund on North American Borders, Security and Prosperity and it consists of 79 questions on border issues and their impact on business costs and strategies. The survey, conducted by Statistics Canada in 2009, was answered by 1,600 establishments in ten export intensive manufacturing industries in Canada.

Title: "A Matter of Trust: Expanding the Preclearance of Commerce between Canada and the United States"
Author(s): C.D. Howe Institute
Date: September 2010
Summary: The thickening of the Canada-U.S. border in response to post 9/11 security challenges has created new obstacles to cross-border trade and investment. However, preclearance of people and goods before they arrive at the physical border offers one of the best ways to address cross-border obstacles while ensuring public safety.

Title: "'Breaking Points,' but No 'Broken' Border: Stakeholders Evaluate Border Issues in the Pacific Northwest Region"
Author(s): Border Policy Research Institute
Date: July 2010
Summary: This paper explores the nature of the faults and the resulting “breaking points” in how the border works, and does not work, as it encounters changes and engages evolution. Recommendations for border policy are offered.

Title: "WHTI, the Recession, and Cross-Border Travel"
Author(s): Border Policy Research Institute
Date: Summer 2010
Summary: The impact of the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI) and the recent recession on the border is examined. Each could be expected to affect cross-border travel. This article looks at cross-border travel trends, seeking to understand what is attributable to these two above events.

Title: "Proceedings: Seminar on Canada - US Border Management Policy Issues"
Author(s): Border Policy Research Institute
Date: April 2010
Summary: Prominent scholars focused upon the issue of Canada – US trade convened in Washington, DC, to present practical policy recommendations. This event provided a unique opportunity for federal policy makers to have a dialogue with academia and to help steer the course of future academic research.

Title: "How DHS Might Address the Mission of Trade Facilitation"
Author(s): Border Policy Research Institute
Date: Spring 2010
Summary: In a post-9/11 era, businesses engaged in cross-border commerce have persistently said that “security has trumped trade” to an extent that is damaging to our integrated North American economy. This article highlights four initiatives proposed by various commentators, all of which can be readily implemented by DHS.

Title: "Border Barometer"
Author(s): Border Policy Research Institute
Date: February 2010
Summary: For the eight northern border ports featured in this brief, 2008’s perfect storm of economic recession, stricter border controls and industry churn, particularly in the auto sector, yielded a decline in cross-border auto and truck traffic of 4.8 percent and a drop in the value of U.S.-Canada trade of 9 percent. Not all ports faired similarly, however, revealing important regional variation.

Title: "The Border After 9/11 – Security Trumps All"
Author(s): Kathryn Bryk Friedman
Date: February 2010
Summary: After the events of September 11, 2001, the preoccupation with security has become the prism through which all policy dictates and outcomes are measured. The attempted Christmas Day bombing aboard an airliner approaching Detroit has only heightened those concerns. Nevertheless, there is a governance framework for making the Canada-U.S. border a priority in Washington, and facilitating the world’s largest trading relationship could help spark a recovery from the recession.

Title: "Re-Energizing Canada’s International Trade"
Author(s): Conference Board of Canada
Date: February 2010
Summary: The first section of this report presents a profile of Canada’s international trade since 1990. The second section looks at Canada’s trade future, drawing on what is known about value chains and other aspects of integrative trade, as well as trends in the global economy. The third section discusses three strategic priority areas where action by business and government – federal and provincial – would make a substantial difference.

Title: "Stakeholder Views on Improving Border Management"
Author(s): Donald K. Alper and Bryant Hammond
Date: December 2009
Summary: The Canada-U.S. border, like all international borders, performs certain functions related to restricting, regulating and interdicting cross-border flows of people, products and pollutants. Though Canada-U.S. border management has always been influenced by security issues, only since 9/11 has the border been viewed as a vital security problem in the context of American national security. This new reality has brought increased attention to the northern border and prompted a continuing debate about the appropriate balance between securitization of the border and facilitation of trade and social interaction.

Title: "America's Freight Transportation Gateways"
Author(s): U.S. Department of Transportation
Date: November 2009
Summary: An update of a report released in 2004 by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration. This current report is a data profile of the nation's leading international freight transportation gateways in 2008 and presents summary trend data from 1990. It is a collection of information that highlights the top 25 fright gateways, providing the most recent annual information on the movement of goods.

Title: "Economic Impact on Blue Water Area, Michigan"
Author(s): Chmura Economics & Analytics
Date: November 2009
Summary: The Canada-United States border along the eastern edge of the Blue Water Bridge has sizable impacts on the regional businesses in St. Clair County, especially retail businesses that benefit from Canadian visitors coming to the region to shop or to dine. 

Title: "Issues with Efficacy of FAST at the Cascade Gateway"
Author(s): Border Policy Research Institute
Date: Fall 2009
Summary: This article uses recently collected data to examine issues related to the efficacy of the FAST program at the Cascade Gateway. Recommendations are made to target FAST to carriers and shippers in the Fraser Valley, repealing of cabotage, and further investigation of service standards and processes at the southbound lanes of the Pacific Highway crossing.

Title: "Toward a New Frontier: Improving the U.S.-Canada Border"
Author(s): Christopher Sands, The Brookings Institution
Date: July 2009
Summary:Since 9/11, security concerns have trumped economic ones at the Canada-U.S. border, leading to delays and higher costs for the cross-border movement of people and goods. Several initiatives have attempted to address these problems, most notably the U.S.-Canada Smart Border Action Plan and the Security and Prosperity Partnership. They have achieved some success, but the unfortunate reality is that the border today remains a source of considerable user frustration and economic drag. This report focuses on the policy process itself and on the conditions that shape its outcomes. In particular, it argues that progress requires taking greater account of the variety of ways in which the border is used by different categories of users in different places.

Title: "Finding the Balance: Shared Border of the Future"
Author(s): The Canadian and U.S. Chambers of Commerce
Date: July 2009
Summary: Prepared in consultation with 47 business associations in both countries, the focus of the paper is to identify areas to reduce border costs in the short term and to increase the competitiveness of Canada-U.S. industries.

Title: "The Effects of 9/11 on Canadian-U.S. Trade: An Update through 2008"
Author(s): Steven Globerman and Paul Storer
Date: July 2009
Summary: This study updates the authors’(2008) statistical examination of changes in the behavior of Canada-U.S. trade following the tightening of security at the Canada-U.S. border in the wake of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The results of the study indicate that increases in border costs may have had significant impacts on trade. An inference of this observation is that the long-run real living standards of both Canadians and Americans have been adversely affected by post-9/11 border security developments. This creates a public policy imperative to reduce costs of bilateral trade without making undue sacrifices in the safety of Canadians and Americans from terrorist attacks.

Title: "United States and Canadian Citizens Perceptions of Border Security: The Influence of Emotional Reactions"
Author(s): James F. Faucett
Date: July 2009
Summary: Efforts to bolster support of border policy are dependent on an understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying perception of border management. U.S. citizens reported higher levels of fear, anger, and worry about border security compared to Canadian citizens, and lower levels of confidence and support. Contributions include an improved understanding of the importance of affect to risk evaluations. Suggestions for border managers attempting to garner support of “Secure Borders and Open Doors” are offered.

Title: "Additional Powers of Search and Seizure at and Near the Border"
Author(s): Border Policy Research Institute
Date: Summer 2009
Summary: This article describes practices related to searches and seizures at and near the border. A lengthy discussion of U.S. practices is followed by a brief discussion of Canadian practices.

Title: "The Year-over-Year Decline in Southbound Freight at the Canada – U.S. Border"
Author(s): Border Policy Research Institute
Date: Spring 2009
Summary: This article examines truck- and rail-borne freight flows at five land ports-of-entry along the Canada-U.S. border: Blaine, WA; Sweetgrass, MT; Buffalo, NY; and Champlain, NY. Together, these five ports handled 53 percent of the truck-borne freight entering the U.S. from Canada in December 2007, so the trends found at these ports likely are representative of the situation along the entire border.

Title: "Trade & Travel Patterns at the Canada – U.S. Border: Policy Implications"
Author(s): Border Policy Research Institute
Date: Winter 2009
Summary: This evidence-based report focuses on trade and travel patterns at the border, how such activity has been affected by security policy changes, and policy implications that could inform business, governments, and other stakeholders charged with developing the next generation of management of the Canada – U.S. border.

Title: "In Search of Effective Border Management"
Author(s): Geoffrey Hale
Date: January 2009
Summary: This paper provides a broad overview of opportunities and challenges in the effective management of border issues – acknowledging varied perspectives that exist both within and between the United States and Canada. It notes the multidimensional challenge of effective border management for security, law enforcement and the facilitation of low-risk trade and travel. This paper further assesses the variety of threat perceptions which exist among policy experts and broader audiences and the challenges that these issues pose for effective cross border cooperation, while distinguishing between the nature and severity of risks along the northern and southern American borders. It considers the potential for regional and societal stakeholders to increase the effectiveness of public policies in the pursuit of both prosperity and security-related goals. Finally, it suggests a number of priority areas for action – building on the wide variety of recent initiatives originated by governments and different elements of civil society.

Title: "Constitutional and Legislative Authority for Intergovernmental Agreements Between U.S. States and Canadian Provinces"
Author(s): Steven de Eyre, Case Western Reserve University School of Law - Senior Research Fellow, Canada-United States Law Institute (research conducted through an internship agreement between the Canada-United States Law Institute (CUSLI) and the Whatcom Council of Governments)
Date: January 2009
Summary: Beyond the traditional treaties negotiated between the federal governments of the United States and Canada, hundreds of arrangements, agreements, or memorandums of understanding exist directly between American states and Canadian provinces, without federal participation, and outside of any formal diplomatic channels. These subnational arrangements – known as “microdiplomacy” – are becoming increasingly prevalent and important in the bilateral relationship. While the actual agreements that exist have been relatively well documented, the legislative and constitutional authority which allow the agreements to exist is rather ambiguous and can differ greatly from state-to-state or province-to-province. This paper first discusses the legality of these agreements, in light of the constitutional limitations on state or provincial treaty making. Second, this paper analyzes what legislative authority authorizes the executive branches of state or provincial governments to enter into agreements with their cross-border counterparts, specifically those agreements related to border issues and transportation.

Title: "A New Bridge for Old Allies"
Author(s): Michael Kergin and Birgit Matthiesen, Canadian International Council
Date: November 2008
Summary: Regional economic integration is the dominant trend in Europe, Asia and Africa; however, Canada and the U.S. appear to be moving in the opposite direction, says a new report from the Canadian International Council (CIC). The CIC study, entitled "A New Bridge for Old Allies," confronts the question: how can the U.S. and Canada protect each other from harm while maintaining their competitive edge and quality of life? It examines how to reverse the disturbing tendency for border security to pull the economies of the two countries apart rather than enabling them to be drawn closer together.

Title: "Governing through Risk at the Canada/US Border"
Author(s): Benjamin Muller
Date: September 2008
Summary: This working paper begins to unpack what is at the root of contemporary Canada/US border security: risk management. Specifically, the analysis highlights the characteristics of risk management itself and its link to quantification, the ramifications of what has come to be a ubiquitous reliance on technology in current border security, and the correlating trend towards centralizing the management of border security leading to the disempowerment of robust stakeholders from the borderlands.

Title: "IMTC 2008 Passenger Intercept Survey Final Report"
Author(s): Melissa Miller, Hugh Conroy, and David Davidson
Date: September 2008
Summary:The 2008 International Mobility & Trade Corridor Project (IMTC) Passenger Intercept Survey was conducted to assess characteristics of cross-border travel in the Cascade Gateway and provide that information to regional and federal public and private agencies. Information includes who crosses the border, for what purposes, origins and destinations, trip frequency, and other details of cross-border travel. Th ese data can be compared to matching information collected by IMTC in the year 2000 to see how cross-border travel demand has changed over the last seven years.

Title: "Canadian Issues Study"
Author(s): U.S. Department of Transportation
Date: August 2008
Summary: FMCSA undertook this study to address various issues related to U.S.-Canada cooperative efforts involving commercial vehicle safety. This included a comparative regulatory analysis and the identification of significant issues that may impact US-Canada reciprocity work. It also included the development of a US-Canada web page designed to assist motor carriers and enforcement officials understanding of the various jurisdictional regulations. The web page will be included on the FMCSA web page ( and is scheduled to be released on December 31, 2008.

Title: "Cross-Border Transportation Patterns at the Cascade Gateway: Implications for Mitigating the Impact of Delay on Regional Supply Chains"
Author(s): Anne Goodchild, Susan Albrecht and Li Leung
Date: June 2008
Summary: This report presents a commercial vehicle profile of transportation patterns and a commodity profile of the primary border crossing along the Western Cascade border region of southwest British Columbia, Canada, and northwest Washington, United States, in particular the corridor between the urban areas of Vancouver, British Columbia, and Seattle, Washington. This research includes both a description of regional trade and a description of current delay patterns, consequences of delay, and causes of delay.

Title: "Inventory of Current Programs for Measuring Wait Times at Land Border Crossings"
Author(s): Jonathan Sabean and Crystal Jones
Date: May 2008
Summary: This report was prepared for Canadian and U.S. customs agencies to identify the programs that are currently in place to measure border wait times. It includes a list of the users of archived and real-time information, and provides a definition of border wait time. The various technologies available for measuring border congestion are outlined, along with the advantages and disadvantages of each. A description of all the current and planned border wait time systems at the Canada-U.S. and U.S.-Mexico border crossings is also presented.

Title: "The Vital Connection: Reclaiming Great Lakes Economic Leadership in the Bi-National U.S.-Canadian Region"
Author(s): John C. Austin, Britany Affolter-Caine. The Brookings Institution
Date: March 2008
Summary: The bi-national Great Lakes region can continue to model what economic regions will look like in the global economy—and also how they can thrive. To realize this vision will require leadership and purposeful actions that acknowledge the unique opportunities provided by the Great Lakes economy. Only the U.S. president and Congress, along with the Canadian prime minister and Parliament, can promote understanding of the economic opportunities to be realized. Working together, and working with federal leadership, the opportunity is real for the Great Lakes region to forge a new economic leadership position, and serve anew as a model for world economic and social innovation.

Title: "The Border Story - A North American Steel Industry Perspective"
Author(s): North American Steel Trade Committee
Date: February 2008
Summary: This report summarizes priority issues at the Canada/U.S. and U.S./Mexico borders for the North American Steel Industry. The issues explored have been grouped under three headings related to border policies including regulatory issues, infrastructure and personnel, documentation requirements, security compliance and other more general issues. This synthesis of common border-related impediments is to followed-up by assessments and/or recommendations for each of the issues cited.

Title: "Finding the Balance: Reducing Border Costs While Strengthening Border Security "
Author(s): U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the Canadian Chamber of Commerce
Date: February 2008
Summary: A coalition, co-chaired by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and the Canadian Chamber of Commerce, in close collaboration with members and partnering associations, released a report that includes recommendations to both the U.S. and Canadian governments to reduce the costs of border crossings and to strengthen national security. The Report included calls for short-term measures to eliminate duplicative and burdensome border requirements and facilitate the movement of legitimate passenger and cargo traffic.

Title: "Guide for Planning and Constructing Border Crossing Projects"
Author(s): Eastern Border Transportation Coalition
Date: January 2008
Summary: The Eastern Border Transportation Coalition observed that, often, planners of new border projects are not totally familiar with all of the aspects relating to it being a “border” project as opposed to an intra-jurisdictional one. Border projects require significant inter-agency consultation and a number of approvals from various governmental agencies, at the federal, state/provincial and local levels. Therefore, EBTC created this guide as a reference document and initial primer to facilitate the planning process and provide a roadmap to the issues involved with the necessary interagency cooperation and approval processes. It briefly outlines the responsibilities of the various agencies and provides a “link” to more complete information.

Title: "Economic Analysis of Security Measures Affecting Transportation Stakeholders in Canada "
Author(s): InterVISTAS Consulting Inc.
Date: November 2007
Summary: In September 2005, Transport Canada commissioned an empirical investigation into the direct operating and capital costs, as well as indirect impacts, imposed by the Canadian and U.S. security measures introduced after September 11th, 2001 and in place before April 2005. This study examines the impact on Canadian air carriers, airports, rail carriers, marine port authorities and facilities, marine shipping lines, and freight forwarders. An earlier study which examined the impact of security measures on the Canadian trucking industry has been incorporated into this report for completeness. Over 50 in-depth interviews were conducted and an additional 136 survey responses were received from the above key stakeholder groups. In most cases, the interview and survey respondents represented a fairly high proportion of the traffic carried by their respective modes. For most modes, the results from the respondents have been scaled up to estimate the impact on the entire Canadian transportation industry.

Title: "Easing the Chokepoints - A Plan for an Efficient Canada-U.S. Border"
Author(s): Ontario Chamber of Commerce
Date: August 2007
Summary: The latest in a series of border and transportation-related infrastructure publications by the Ontario Chamber of Commerce (OCC), was released in August 2007. The Report contains recommendations designed to help alleviate border-related difficulties by streamlining overlap and/or duplication in transportation, trade, and security regulations, and by providing sufficient resources to support and/or expand trusted traveller and trade-security programs.

Title: "Strategic responses by Canadian and U.S. exporters to increased U.S. border security measures: a firm- level analysis" Canada-United States Trade Centre Occasional Paper No. 36 (Buffalo: State University of New York)
Author(s): Anneliese Vance
Date: July 2007
Summary: The primary goal of this report was to understand how business professionals, whose livelihoods are directly related to the ease and efficiency of cross-border movement, perceive & strategically accommodate policy changes that affect the permeability of the international border within the greater Niagara region (i.e., Southern Ontario & Western New York State). Semi-structured qualitative interviews (35) with Canadian & U.S. firms who regularly use the region's main border crossing points (primarily the Peace, Whirlpool, and Queenston-Lewiston Bridges) were conducted.

Title: "Service Time Variability at the Blaine, Washington, International Border Crossing and the Impact on Regional Supply Chains"
Author(s): Anne Goodchild, Steven Globerman, Susan Albrecht
Date: June 2007
Summary: Service times at vehicle processing facilities are variable, thereby causing transportation planning challenges for carriers that visit them on a regular basis. Directional, daily, hourly, and seasonal variations are examined. The paper also describes carriers’ responses to variability in service time. It is demonstrated that the primary strategy used, increasing buffer times, reduces carrier productivity. However, this costs is negligible due to the current nature of the market.

Title: "Reaching the Tipping Point: Effects of Post-9/11 Border Security on Canada’s Trade and Investment"
Author(s): Danielle Goldfarb, The Conference Board of Canada
Date: June 2007
Summary: This report presents an extensive analysis of the cumulative effects of post-9/11 border security policies on Canada-U.S. trade volumes, costs and benefits. Maintaining and enhancing secure, predictable access to the United States economy has been a long-standing objective of Canadian leaders. Drawing on almost 60 interviews and extensive statistical analysis, the Board finds that the cumulative effects of post-9/11 border policies have neither reduced Canadian export volumes to the U.S. nor increased border delays. However, this new border environment has resulted in important costs for many companies. This may make it less attractive to locate plants in Canada in the long term. The new border environment can represent opportunities; however, some companies have gained a competitive edge by investing in new border security programs to fast-track cargo. The report offers recommendations to maximize these benefits and minimize the costs of the post-9/11 border reality.

Title: "Tighter Border Security and its Effect on Canadian Exports "
Author(s): Michael Burt, The Conference Board of Canada
Date: June 2007
Summary: This report uses statistical methods to assess the impact that tighter border security in a post-9/11 world has had on Canada’s exports to the United States. The 9/11 terrorist attacks led to increased security at the Canada-U.S. border. This change has raised concerns about significant disruptions in international trade between the two countries, in the form of delays and increased compliance costs. After accounting for economic growth in the United States and relative prices between the two countries, the study finds little evidence that tighter border security has reduced export volumes. Industry-specific factors, such as the tech bust, were more important in explaining reduced trade flows.

Title: "2006 Border Policies"
Author(s): Ontario Chamber of Commerce
Date: October 2006
Summary: The Ontario Chamber of Commerce and its members are greatly concerned about the efficient movement of goods and people across the Ontario-U.S. border. The facilitation of trade and travel of commercial and passenger traffic is of the utmost importance. Annually, $1.2 trillion are transported on Ontario highways, and one in four jobs are dependent on the export industry. As such, the Ontario-US border is of critical importance to the provincial - and national - economy. Delays at Canada's most important border crossings cost the Canadian and US economies more than $13 billion annually. This report outlines the issues and provides key OCC recommendations on how to address the challenges at our borders.

Title: "The Impacts of 9/11 on Canada"
Author(s): Steven Globerman and Paul Storer
Date: July 2006
Summary: One consequence of the 9/11 terrorist attacks is heightened security concerns surrounding the movement of goods and people across international borders that, in turn, have raised the prospects of substantial disruptions of international trade. Within the Canada-U.S. context, numerous observers have identified increased regulations and intensified inspection procedures at the Canada-U.S. border as contributing to significantly higher shipping costs and shipment delays. The higher costs and associated disruptions to commercial shipments might be inferred to discourage growth of trade between the two countries. It is now widely accepted that economic integration between the Canadian and U.S. economies is, on balance, an important contributor to the economic health of both economies, especially Canada’s. Developments that might attenuate the growth and “deepening” of North American economic integration therefore threaten the economic welfare of Canadians and Americans, and their nature and magnitude are worthy of careful analysis.

Title: "The Emergence of Cross-Border Regions Between Canada and the United States: Roundtable Synthesis Report"
Author(s): Government of Canada
Date: May 2006
Summary: This work was part of the Policy Research Initiative’s (PRI) research on the growing extent of various links between Canada and the United States, creating cross-border regional relationships, and the sub-national dimensions of North American economic integration. PRI partnered with Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency, Western Economic Diversification Canada, and Canada Economic Development for Quebec Regions to conduct a series of regional roundtables between November 2005 and March 2006.

Title: "CBP's Trusted Traveler Systems Using RFID Technology Require Enhanced Security"
Author(s): U.S. Department of Homeland Security
Date: May 2006
Summary: This report assesses the strengths and weaknesses of controls over systems using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) at U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). It is based on interviews with employees and officials of relevant agencies and institutions, direct observations, technical scans, and a review of applicable documents.

Title: "Explaining the Decline in Border Crossings Since 1990"
Author(s): Border Policy Research Institute, Western Washington University
Date: February 2006
Summary: This report presents an econometric model developed by Hodges with the goal of determining what factors can explain the pattern of Canadian same-day border crossings that occurred in Whatcom County from 1990 onward. His research indicates that 9/11 significantly changed the behaviour of Canadian travelers, such that certain factors prominent prior to 9/11, including the exchange rate and the prices of clothing and milk, are no longer as significant. Other factors, including gasoline prices and the wages of Canadians, have greater explanatory power in the period since 9/11.

Title: "The Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act:  A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU)"
Author(s): U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration
Date: August 2005
Summary: This link will take you directly to the reauthorized U.S. federal transportation law.  SAFETEA-LU authorizes U.S. federal surface transportation programs for highways, highway safety, and transit for the 5-year period 2005-2009.

Title: "Borderline Insecurity
Author(s): Senate Committee on National Security and Defence
Date: June 2005
Summary: Canada’s Land Border Crossings are key to Canada’s Security and Prosperity. Why the Lack of Urgency to Fix Them? What Will Happen If We Don’t?

Title: "The Cumulative Impact of U.S. Import Compliance Programs at the Canada-U.S. Land Border on the Canadian Trucking Industry
Author(s): DAMF Consultants in association with L.P Tardif and Associates
Date: May 2005
Summary: Transport Canada, the Ontario Ministry of Transport and the Federation of Québec Chambers of Commerce, in collaboration with the Ministry of Transport of Québec, jointly commissioned a study to provide the federal government, as well as provincial and industry partners, with a better understanding of the cumulative impact of U.S. import compliance programs at the Canada/U.S. land border. The New Brunswick and Manitoba departments of Transportation, as well as two industry associations - the Canadian Trucking Alliance and the Owner-Operators’ Business Association of Canada, also participated in this study.

Title: "Building a North American Community
Author(s): Council on Foreign Relations
Date: May 2005
Summary: In this report, a distinguished group of Canadian, Mexican, and American experts explore key issues that require more cooperation on the continent-including economics, regulatory policy, security, the developing gap, and tri-national institutions-and offers a vision for the relationship among the three countries for the next ten years. The report recommends a single economic space that expands economic opportunity for all people in the region, and the establishment of a security zone that protects the region from external threats while facilitating the legitimate passage of goods, people, and capital.

Title: "Border Security and Canada-US Integration: Toward a Research Policy Agenda: A Symposium at Western Washington University. " Summary of Proceedings
Author(s): N/A
Date: April 2005
Summary: The goal of this one-day symposium was to examine the impacts of new security measures on border functions, management and economic integration in the Canada-US context. The symposium brought together practitioners from government and business to exchange ideas with academic experts on critical issues impacting the Canada-US border. An important objective of the symposium was the identification of critical research topics relevant to border public policy. These topics are listed following the summaries of each conference presentation.

Title: "Cost of Border Delays to the United States Economy"
Author(s): The Ontario Chamber of Commerce Border and Trade Development Committee
Date: April 2005
Summary: This report is meant as a follow-up to the OCC’s 2004 study. The 2005 report examines the cost effects of border delays to the U.S. economy. The report estimates that the U.S. absorbs up to 40 percent of the current cost of border delays.

Title: "The Jobs Tunnel:  The Economic Impact of Adequate Border Crossing Infrastructure." Author(s): Michael Belzer
Date: November 2004
Summary: This study was commissioned by the Detroit River Tunnel Partnership and is specific to the Windsor- Detroit corridor.  It documents the economic cost of doing nothing to international crossing capacity within the corridor, and focuses on economic issues, particularly in the area of automotive production.

Title: "Fixing the Potholes in North American Transportation Systems." Choices, Vol. 10, no. 8, Institute for Research on Public Policy
Author(s): Norman Bonsor
Date: August 2004
Summary: This report argues that significant delays at major border crossings have pushed transportation costs above an efficient level. The report suggests that three areas need to be addressed with some urgency to stem costly delays experienced by truck traffic at the border: infrastructure, processing systems, and staffing levels.

Title: "Cost of Border Delays to Ontario."
Author(s): The Ontario Chamber of Commerce Border and Trade Development Committee
Date: May 2004
Summary: This report quantifies the costs of border delays on the Ontario economy, and considers the impact of delays on production, revenue, investment, tourism and on the province’s automotive industry.

Title: "The U.S.-Canada Border:  Cost Impacts, Causes, and Short to Long Term Management Options"
Author(s): John C. Taylor and Douglas Robideaux
Date: May 2003
Summary: This report summarizes the results of a research project aimed at estimating the costs of border crossing transit time and uncertainty, and other border related costs, and their impact on the U.S. and Canadian economies.  The study also seeks to understand immediate post-9/11 impacts.

Title: "Evaluation of Travel Time Methods to Support Mobility Performance Monitoring:  FY 2001 Synthesis Report
Author(s): Texas Transportation Institute
Date: April 2002
Summary: At the request of the U.S. Federal Highway Administration, the Texas Transportation Institute undertook a project in 2001 that focused on measuring the time it takes freight trucks to cross the border.  The project sought to discover which parts of the crossing process that local and state transportation agencies could improve, and determined a benchmark border crossing delay measure for commercial vehicles at seven separate international crossings, four of which are located on the Canada-U.S. border.

Title: "2000 IMTC Cross-Border Trade and Travel Study Final Report." International Mobility and Trade Corridor Project
Author(s): Cambridge Systematics Inc.
Date: September 2001
Summary: The International Mobility and Trade Corridor Project (IMTC) is a U.S.-Canadian coalition of government and business entities that identifies and promotes improvements to mobility and security for the four border crossings between Whatcom County, Washington State, and the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. Together, these four crossings are called the Cascade Gateway. The IMTC’s Cross-Border Trade and Travel Study was completed in 2001 as a response to the need identified by IMTC participants for better data on the Cascade Gateway.